(Updated September 16, 2014) The “PUG” — Pentastar Upgrade — is still coming, probably in time for the 2017 Rams and possibly even in time for the 2016 minivans, which should start production in early 2015. There is no definite word on what will be different, but we have heard tales of revised heads, direct injection, and improvements to the dual cam phasing system, possibly affecting exhaust as well as intake, or altering the valve lift.
We are still expecting a supercharged 3.2 liter engine, but not until 2016. That engine would fill the gap between 300-horsepower-3.6 and 380-horsepower-5.7 engines. There is a non-supercharged 3.2 liter engine already in production for the Jeep Cherokee and other vehicles. Other news concerns direct injection and turbochargers.
A recently granted patent (applied for back in 2011 by Chrysler’s Richard H. Sands and Alan G. Falkowski) can cut Chrysler’s costs and reduce the size of their engines, helping the company to either fit larger engines into their cars, or to lower their hoods.
The patent applies to in-line and V-engines alike, which means it could be used for the upcoming Hurricane turbocharged four-cylinder; but the drawings and a specific size example are taken from a V6 engine, presumably the PUG (Pentastar Upgrade).
According to the patent description, the new setup would integrate valve controls into the head, rather than having them sit on the outside with a separate cover; passages inside the head would provide access to the valves. This would save space and reduce cost. Thanks, Steven St. Laurent.
The 3.0 liter engine
The normally aspirated, smaller-displacement Pentastar Six developed to avoid European engine-size-based taxes, with just under 3 liters of displacement (e.g. 2.997 liters / 2997 cc), is being made.
The block is different from the 3.2 and 3.6 blocks; it even stronger, with substantial passage differences, and even closer tolerances than the 3.6 and 3.2
A December 2011 financial report from Chrysler noted that the Pentastar had an “architecture for downsized displacement, direct injection, turbo charging, and MultiAir.” So far, none but the 3.0 liter variant has been seen.
The 3.2 liter engine
MoparNorm wrote that the 3.2 is being created by changing the thickness of the cylinder liner; this means there can be a single block, but the 3.2 can still have, effectively, a smaller bore. The piston, rings, valves, and heads will change, and the 3.2 will have smaller journals, and should have increased gas mileage through reducing rolling resistance.
The 3.2 was released in March 2013, on the Jeep Cherokee, producing 271 hp and 239 lb-ft of torque. It comes in at 198 cid — the same displacement as the mid-range slant six — and has a compression ratio of 10.7:1.
The Pentastar’s wide torque band allows it to sit around at 1,200 rpm when cruising and 600 rpm when idling, so moving to three cylinders at that point might not save enough fuel to be worth the added cost and complexity.
Other Chrysler Pentastar V6 engine notes
A 3.3 liter version was planned, but almost certainly dropped. A V8 was rumored early on, but it did not appear in the Five Year Plan; a 4.8 liter V8 still seems to be in the cards, though whether it's a mini-Hemi or a 3.6+2 cylinders is unclear. Some believe now that the company is at the initial stages of planning a new series of V8s, based on advances made in the Pentastar line.
Direct injection has been delayed for numerous reasons, and is not expected until calendar years 2015-2016. Chrysler might be waiting for the expected phase-in of low-sulfur gasoline in the United States.
Update: Direct injection is reportedly still being worked on, though few expect to see production before calendar year 2015 at this point.
A twin turbo and single-turbocharger 3.0 V6 were originally planned for 2014, for limited-production models, producing 420 and 370 horsepower respectively (these numbers are probably speculative or targets). Ferrari/Maserati have already created a 404 horsepower twin-turbo V6, reportedly using a version of the Pentastar block which has been heavily modified; buyers can get them in the 300C-derived Maserati Ghibli.
Chrysler’s own twin turbo V6 is reportedly still under development in Auburn Hills. It will likely produce less power, probably slotting in underneath the current 5.7 liter Hemi V8, but also cost much less to build. The timeframe for this engine remains unknown.
The state-of-the-art Trenton (Mich.) Engine South plant is the lead facility for production of the Pentastar V-6 engine, with a duplicate facility in Saltillo, Mexico and additional production in Mack Avenue and Trenton North. Production started in March 2010. Major components are also produced in Trenton North and Mack Avenue.
The new lineup of Mercedes V6 engines are most likely close relatives of the Chrysler V6, but Mercedes is unlikely to ever state this on the record.
The following table was first provided in July 2006 with information from oh20, in a form not dissimilar from its current state. Horsepower ratings were derived later, by us, from the Five Year Plan and other sources. All engines have variable valve timing (via dual cam phasing) unless otherwise noted.
|Size||Line / Notes||Horsepower||Cars||Production |
Start / Status
|3.0 V6||Direct Injection, MDS||250?||Exports where gas mileage is key||2016?|
|3.0 V6||240?||Exports with displacement taxes||2013|
|3.0 Twin Turbo||Premium||380?||Avenger? Charger?||2015-16?|
|3.2 V6||271||Cherokee, minivans?, more||Started, 2013|
|3.2||Direct Injection||280-290||Big cars, minivans, SUVs||2015-16?|
|3.2||Supercharged||310-340?||Large cars, SUVs||2016|
|3.6 V6||280-305||(All vehicles with a V6)||2010|
|3.6 V6||Direct Injection||Ram, Wrangler||2015-16?|
|3.6 V6||PZEV||200, Avenger, Minivans||Unknown|
|4.0 V6||Base (no VVT)||marine use||Unknown|
|4.0 V6||Premium, MDS, no VVT||marine use||Unknown|
|4.7 or 4.8 V8||Any Hemi-equipped vehicle||2016?|
If we rely only on the Five Year Plan chart and what we know of current production and testing, we get this revised chart. We don’t know what happened to direct injection — or whether the 3.2 will be MultiAir equipped.
|3.0 V6||Direct injection, MultiAir 2||230-250|
|3.0 V6||Direct Injection Turbo||330|
|3.0 V6||Twin Turbo (delayed)||360|
|3.6 V6||The original||280 - 305|
|3.2 V6||Direct injected (delayed)||280|
|3.6 V6||Direct injected (delayed)||310|
The prior V6 engines (dating back to around 1990) have all been dropped, with the last survivor being the 3.7, lasting to August 2012. The 4.7 liter V8, which produces roughly the same horsepower as the 3.6 (albeit with higher torque), is reputed to be dropped around March-April 2013.
Past rumors: did we get it right?
Allpar.com started posting news about the Pentastar V6 in 2006, four years before its official release. The Phoenix engines were first discussed by Allpar member "superduckie" way back in March 2006. oh20 (who had been accurate on the Ram, Challenger, Caliber, and Sebring) provided the preceding table of the engines and cars they’d go into back in July 2006.
This report came on November 3, 2008:
Even the most powerful Phoenix, displacing 3.6 liters and producing (in preliminary tests) over 280 horsepower, is quieter than Toyota’s 3.3 liter V6 - and far quieter than the Toyota 3.5 liter V6. Gas mileage is said to be good, partly due to the use of high-pressure, die-cast blocks, which save on labor and allow for thinner walls and less use of aluminum. These blocks are 20 pounds lighter than General Motors’ V6 blocks, saving around $40 per engine on aluminum alone; an independent firm estimated that these engines are at least $300 cheaper to build than GM’s current V6 line.